This is a meeting where one party asks an opposing party a series of questions. Examinations are conducted in front of a court reporter. The court reporter records the examination and also creates a written transcripts of all the questions and answers given in the examination.
The examination is also conducted under oath or solemn affirmation. So, the transcript can be used in court under certain circumstances to both support and refute assertions made at trial or in a hearing.
In British Columbia, and most of Canada, examinations are conducted lawsuits in the Supreme Court. Small Claims court do not generally allow for examinations.